Uses: To bind poles that are in contact and cross each other at any angle from 45º to 90º. If the angle of contact is greater than 45º, a shear lashing should be used. Thought to be the most secure lashing available.
1) Tie a clove hitch to the vertical pole.
2) Twist the standing end of the rope around the running end. This is to secure the clove hitch so that it will not slip.
3) Bring the running end up and over the cross pole; then around the vertical pole; and back down over the cross pole.
4) Pass the rope behind the vertical pole and back up in front of the cross pole; this completes the first wrapping.
5) Take two more wrapping turns for a total of three wrappings and pull each turn tight.
6) Start the frapping turns by taking one complete turn around the cross pole. This turn prevents the rope from crossing the wrapping turns on a diagonal.
7) Take at least two frapping turns; keeping the turns parallel to each other and pull them tight as they are made.
8) When the last frapping turn is in place, take a half hitch around the cross pole, working it tight.
9) Add a second half hitch to form a clove hitch around the cross pole and work it tight.
Notes: The square lashing gets its name from the fact that the wrapping turns are at 90º or “square” to the poles. Traditional square lashing is the most frequently used and the most secure form of lashing. If tied properly, the square lashing will remain tight and secure; however, as with all lashings, if any steps are omitted or done carelessly, the lashing will loosen and create a dangerous situation.
Uses: A shear lashing is often used to bind adjacent poles together. It is also a good way to reinforce a broken or weak pole. A loose Shear Lashing made around the ends of two poles will allow the poles to be opened out and used as an A-frame.
1) Lay out the poles. For most lashings you will want to lay the poles side by side with the butt ends aligned.
2) Tie a clove hitch around one of the poles.
3) Secure the standing part by wrapping it around the running part in a twisting fashion.
4) Pass the rope around the poles, pulling each turn tight making a series of turns until the lashing is at least as long as the combined diameter of the two poles (usually a set of 4 to 6 turns will be sufficient).
5) Tighten the lashing with 2 to 3 frapping turns by taking the rope down between the poles.
6) Pass the rope around one pole and tuck it under itself to form a half hitch. Pull this tight and make a second half hitch forming a clove hitch by taking the rope around the same pole and tucking it under itself.
Notes: The wrapping turns used to tighten the lashing may be omitted and replaced with wedges inserted between the poles (round lashing).
1) Tie a clove hitch around one of the outside poles.
2) Secure the standing part by wrapping it around the running part. (Wrapping the standing part around the running part prevents the clove hitch from slipping around the pole. If the clove hitch slips the lashing will loosen up from the inside.)
3) Start the wrapping turns by wrapping the rope around the poles. Take a total of 4 to 6 wrapping turns. Pull each wrapping turn tight as it is made. (The stiffness of the tripod lashing depends on the number and tightness of the wrapping turns. As the tightness of the wrapping turns or the number of wrapping turns increases, the stiffness of the tripod will increase.
4) Take the first frapping turn by passing the rope around the pole that the clove hitch was tied to, then between the outside pole and the center pole.
5) Take 2 or 3 frapping turns. Pull each frapping turn tight as it is made.
6) Start the second set of frapping turns by taking the rope around the center pole and pass it between the second outside pole and the center pole.
7) Take the second set of frapping turns. (Taking the second set of frapping turns in the opposite direction to the first set of frapping turns prevents the rope from crossing the wrappings at a diagonal. Unnecessary crossing of the rope increases friction between the strands of the rope making it difficult to tighten the lashing properly.)
8) Take a total of 2 or 3 frapping turns. Pull each turn tight.
9) Make the first half hitch of the ending clove hitch around the second outside pole by taking the rope past the pole and then around the pole. Work the half hitch tight so that it is locked against the lashing.
10) Make the second half hitch of the ending clove hitch. Work the half hitch tight to complete the ending clove hitch. (If very smooth rope is being used, a 3rd half hitch should be added to the clove hitch to insure that the lashing will stay in place.
Uses: Diagonal lashing is used to bind poles together that cross each other but do not touch when their ends are lashed in place in a structure. The diagonal lashing can be used to bind poles that cross each other from 90° to 45°. If the angle between the poles is less than 45° a shear lashing should be used.
1) Tie a timber hitch diagonally around both poles.
2) Start the wrapping turns on the opposite diagonal to the timber hitch, by pulling the rope tight so that the poles contact each other.
3) Take 3 to 4 wrapping turns; keep the wrapping turns parallel and pull each wrapping turn tight.
4) Start the second set of wrapping turns by going past and around the vertical pole. (Going around the pole allows the direction of the rope to be changed without crossing the first set of wrapping diagonally.)
5) Take 3 to 4 wrapping turns; be sure to keep the wrapping turns parallel and pull each wrapping turn tight.
6) Start the frapping turns by going past and around one of the poles. (Going around the pole allows the direction of the rope to be changed without crossing the first set of wrapping diagonally.)
7) Take 2 to 3 frapping turns; keep the frapping turns parallel and be sure to pull each turn tight.
8) End the lashing with a clove hitch. Take the first half hitch of the clove hitch by going past and then around one of the poles. Lock the half hitch tight against the lashing by working it tight.
9) Take the second half hitch around the pole.
10) Work the second half hitch tight against the first half hitch so that the clove hitch is locked against the lashing.
Notes: The diagonal lashing gets its name from the fact that the wrapping turns cross the poles diagonally.
Uses: Used to lash two poles together (like in constructing a flagpole).
1) Tie a Clove Hitch around one pole.
2) Wrap the rope around both poles seven or eight times.
3) Finish with two Half Hitches around both poles making a Clove Hitch.
Notes: The lashing can be tightened by driving a small wooden peg between the poles. If possible force a wedge under the lashings to make them really tight. If the spars are vertical, bang the wedge in downwards.
Uses: To lash a series of poles to a set of stringers to form a flat surface such as a deck or floor, a table top, or a road way.
1) Tie a clove hitch around each stringer (rafter).
2) Secure the short end of the rope by wrapping it around the running end forming a twisting pattern.
3) Place the decking poles on the stringers and take a bight around the first pole.
4) On the inside of the stringer, pull a bight up between the first decking pole and the next decking pole.
5) Place the eye of the bight over the end of the decking pole.
6) Pull tight.
7) On the outside of the stringer, place a bight over the next decking pole.
8) Pull tight.
9) Repeat steps 4 through 8 until all decking poles are lashed in place.
10) Tie the first half hitch of the ending clove hitch. Work half hitch tight.
11) Tie the second half hitch of the ending clove hitch. Work half hitch tight to form clove hitch.
Notes: When using a floor lashing, both ends of the decking poles must be lashed at the same tine to insure a firm even surface. When placing the decking poles on the stringers, lay the decking poles so that their butt end are in alternating direction. Alternating the but ends of the decking poles will compensate for the natural taper of the poles so that the length of the decking along each stringer will be equal.